Never Let Me Go considers the differences in individuals and their worth to society through the lens of class and education i.e. the environment in which they were born and raised. Hailsham students have added prestige even though their fate is similar to other clones [2,13]. It also raises the question of the value of humans who are unsuccessful in reproduction because clones are only useful as caretakers of other clones and for needed body parts [2, 17-18] or as Samad says, “What is life without children?”[1,1].
White Teeth examines two generations of individuals and the effect of race, education and class on their behavior and success in life in a post-war world economy. Some individuals try to hold onto their cultural differences others assimilate as seen with Magid and Millat [1, 17], while character Irie makes the best of her mentor’s attitudes about her abilities [1,35].
When the question of a species reproducing itself by cloning for ensuring the success of individuals by creating a supply of body parts, Never Let Me Go points out the expense of the proposition, the lack of humanity, and the establishment of a slave society i.e. one that caters to the superior
For White Teeth and for Never Let Me Go, the idea of having cures for diseases and using animals or clones to test implies that humanity will be better even if it doesn’t affect reproduction success except by implication i.e. the late marriages of both Archie and Samad [1,1]. By showing the population in terms of an evolutionary mode, White Teeth’s connection with any character is distant—the reader seldom feels the character’s emotions. The children get older as do the adults and their survival achieved. So the reader is left to wonder if individual lives matter. And the reader must also wonder should they care who “is on the table trying to cling to life” as Ruth says [2, 19] or about the pain of the FutureMouse© [1,12]. Samad laments, “didn’t they have everything … aren’t they safe?” [1,9] so the reader wonders whether all resources should be directed toward the next generation.
To offset this, never revised[1, 8] (family) history is considered important as suggested by Samad’s tale of Grandfather Pande, and the huge variability in population via Bengal[1,9] and the east’s multitudes [1,5], etc. with Archie saying, “we are wells of experience our children can use” [1,9].
Never Let Me Go takes the position that art and production of work adds value [2, 19] and makes individuals more than just another organism eating to reproduce and have a soul. Both novels imply such value is easily lost and outmoded i.e. Never Let Me Go’s search for the lost record[2,15] and the gallery’s fate [2,19] and in White Teeth Irie’s inability to create a family tree[1,12].
Both novels suggest that society ultimately decides the fate of individuals especially the clones called for donation seemed right [2,19] and for FutureMouse©[1, 12]. No individual is safe from environmental factors such as war [1,5] or flooding or storms[1, 9], societal class/race via Mr. Hamilton [1,7] or education.
So what is the purpose of using a scientific process as the framework for a novel? In my opinion, it helps to separate discrete variables into sets where a reader or writer can think about what is going on subject to the theory. Utopian and dystopian fiction in literature has historically looked at the ways in which changes to the societal framework affects human individuals. By moving the framework to a biological evolutionary model instead of the typical Platonian political model of leadership, education, community status, subjective idealistic notions are replaced by more measurable elements such as reproduction success and survival. Both novels demonstrate that what makes the human species different lies not so much in biological factors but in the ability of humans to cooperate, communicate and form alliances thus forming society with Hailsham students exceling at art and with organizations like KEVIN[1,18] and mentorship[1, 12]. Both ultimately reflect the Platonian society by questioning the values humans hold, showcasing the emotional and political bonds between people and highlighting limits on human freedom via the discussion of terrorism and the discussion of Kathy’s bonuses (bedsit, lamp, car, choice of donors)[2, 18].
 Zadie Smith , “White Teeth”, Vintage, 2000
 Kazuo Ishiguro, “Never Let Me Go”, Vintage, 2005